In this article, the Inscriptional and Literary Evidence of the date of Mahabharata War is dealt. These evidence prove strongly, assertively and precisely that Mahabharata war was fought 42 years before Kali Yuga Epoch 3101 B.C.E. i.e. 3143 B.C.E.
The Importance of Epoch of Kaliyuga
In the ancient texts of our Nation, time is measured both in Micro and Macroscopic units. Puranic Texts like Vishnu Puranam (1:3:8 to 10) and Sreemad Bhagavatam (3:11:33) describe Macro Time. Varivasya Rahasyam (vv.12cd, 13 & 16 cd) describes Micro Time. In the same way, Astronomical texts like SuryaSiddhanta 1:11 to 27, Maha Aryabhatta Siddhanta 1:15 to 20, Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta 1:4 to 14, Vatesvara Siddhanta 1:7 to 10 and Siddhanta Siromani 1: 5 to 27 mention the Time Division in Micro as well as Macroscopic units. These Puranic and Astronomical texts describe that the life time of Brahma is 432,00,00,000 x 2 x 360 x 100 years, i.e. 3,11,04,000,00,00,000 human years. The smallest unit of time mentioned in these ancient texts is Truti i.e. 1/1,12,500 second.
Life time of Brahma has 2 x 360 x 100 Kalpa. One Kalpa has 432 Crore human years and of 14 Manvantra of 30,84,48,000 human years, including Sandhi period. One Manvantra has 71 Mahayuga and their Sandhi period. Sandhi Period is equal to 17,28,000 human years (Years of Kruta or Satya yuga). One Mahayuga is
of 43,20,000 human years, i.e.17,28,000 years of Kruta + 12,96,000 years of Treta + 8,64,000 years of Dvapara + 4,32,000 human years of Kali yuga. Here, 360 human years are equal to one Divya year which is again equal to 12 Pitru years. At present we are living in the first day of 51st year of Brahma and in Svetavaraha Kalpa, 7th Manvantara (Vaivasvata), 28th Mahayuga and in Kaliyuga Prathama Bhaga (as per Sankalpa). Now as per this calculation, we are living in the first part of Kali yuga of 28th Mahayuga. The beginning of this Kaliyuga of 28th Mahayuga of 7th Manvantara of Svetavaraha Kalpa is the epoch of the present Kali yuga.
In the ancient texts of our Nation, the chronology is often counted from the beginning of Kali yuga i.e. Epoch of the present Kali yuga. Bhavishya Purana, in its Sloka 3:1:7:7 & 8, mentions that King Pramara of Agni Vamsa of Sama Veda started his dynasty at Ujjain in 2710th year of Kali yuga. In the same text, the Sloka 3:1:7:14 & 15 mention that King Vikramaditya of this dynasty who started Vikrama Samvat, born in 3000th year of Kali yuga. Jyotirvidabharanam of Kalidasa, in Sloka 22:21, mentions that Kalidasa started writing this text in Vaikasi Month of 3068th year of Kali yuga and completed in Karthika Month. Jyotirvidabharanam of Kalidasa in its Sloka 10:22, mentions that King Vikramaditya, Astronomer Varahamihira were contemporary to Kalidasa. Thus, these three great personalities of ancient period, lived around 3050 years after the beginning of Kali yuga. Further this text mentions, in its Sloka 10:110 to 114, that 3044 years after King Yudhishthira, King Vikramaditya started his Vikrama Samvat and 135 years after this Vikrama Samvat, King Salivahana would start his Salivahana Saka. He even mentioned future Kings
like Vijayabhinandana, Nagarjuna and Bali. Thus, in the year 3044 of Kali yuga, Vikrama Samvat began and in 3179th year of Kaliyuga, Salivahana Saka began, because Jayabhyudaya Yudhishthira Saka had begun at Kali yuga beginning. Vruddha Garga mentioned that Saptarishi (Great Bear) were at Magha Nakshatra at
Kali Dvapara Yuga Junction. Varahamihira mentioned in his Brihat Samhita, at its 3rd sloka 13th Adhyaya, that Saptarishi were at Magha Nakshatra when Yudhishthitira was King. This shows that Kali Dvapra yuga junction and the period of Yudhishthira are one and the same in terms of time.
Vatesvara Siddhnata 10th sloka of 1st section of 1st chapter, Sisyadhi Vriddhida Tantra of Lallacarya 12th sloka of 1st Adhyaya, Mahabhaskariyam of Bhaskara 4th sloka of 1st Adhyaya, Laghubhaskariyam of Bhaskara
4th sloka of 1st Adhyaya mention that in 3179th year of Kali yuga, Salivahana Saka began. Siddhanta Siromani of Bhaskaracarya in Grahaganitadhyaya, Madhyamadhikara, Kalamanadhyaya, 28th sloka mentions that Sakanrupa Era came to an end in 3179 years of Kali yuga, at which Salivahana Saka began. Varahamihira in his Brihat Samhita mentioned in the 3rd sloka of 13th Adhyaya that 2526 years after Yudhishthira of Pancha Pandava, the era of the Saka King (Sakanrupa Era of Cyrus II) began. King Yudhishthira went to heaven 25 years after the beginning of Kali yuga. Thus, in 2551st (2526 + 25) year of Kali yuga, Sakanrupa
Era of Cyrus II began. Thus, by fixing the year of Kali yuga beginning, we can correctly derive the Epoch of Cyrus II, the period of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, Varahamihira, Kalidasa and Salivahana.
In the same way, the date of AdiSankara can also be correctly derived. The year of Birth of AdiSankara is given in the ancient Sanskrit text Praceena Sankara Vijaya (Sushama), in Bhooda Sankya. It mentions that
in Kaliyuga (Tishya), Anala, Sevati, Bana, Netra = 3, 9, 5, 2 = 2593 (Anganaam Vaamato Gati), Vaikasa month, Punarvasu Nakshatram, is the year of birth of AdiSankara. The Sanskrit verse is,
“ Tishye prayaatyanala sevati baana netre
yo nandane dinamanaamavutakatvabaaji
Raade aditerutuni nigatam astra lagne
Abyahootavaan Sivagurus sa ca Sankareti”
The year of Siddhi of AdiSankara is given in Punya Sloka Manjari, 4th sloka, in Katapayaati Sankhya as, in Kali (Kaler), Saracaraabde = Sa 5, ra 2, ca 6, ra 2 = 2625 (Angaanaam Vaamato Gati), Rakthaakshi year, Vaikasi month, Suklapaksha Ekadasi at the age of 32 (phala, pha =2, la = 3). The Sanskrit verse is,
“Phale svasmin svaayushyapi Saracarabte api ca Kaler
vililye Raktaakshin yadhiivRusha sitaikaadasi pare”
(Refer Deivathin Kural, 5th Volume, Sankara Kala Nirnayam, Pages 760 to 780). Thus the date of AdiSankara can be fixed correctly.
Besides, the date of Mahabharata War can also be fixed correctly. Mahabharata text of Veda Vyasa mentions that the war was fought at the end of Dvapara yuga and Kali yuga would begin very soon. There was just 36 + years of difference from the year of Mahabharata war to the beginning of Kali yuga. (Refer Mahabharata Text of Veda Vyasa, Adiparva 2:13, Vanaparva 149:39, Santi Parva 332/339/340 Adhyaya,
Sree Krishna Avatara at Dvapara Kali junction, Streeparva 25:44, Mausala Parva 1:1, 3 & 7, 2:18 to 21 & 24, 3:7 & My book “Astronomical Evidence of the Date of Mahabharata War” based on Astronomy and Trigonometric Mathematical Calculations described in ancient Astronomical Texts of our Nation and the book is available as Kindle Edition in amazon.in). Thus, the year of Mahabharata war can be fixed.
Purana, especially Vishnu, Matsya, Brahmanda, Vayu and Sreemad Bhagavatam describe the chronology of Pandava dynasty, Ikshvaku Dynasty and Magadha Empire and their contemporary Kings ruling various parts of our Nation from the year of Mahabharata war up to Gupta period. These Purana also mention that
Kali yuga began immediately after Sree Krishna left the world. Refer Vishnu Purana 4th part 21 to 24th Adhyaya, Matsya Purana 271 to 273rd Adhyaya, Brahmanda Purana 2nd part 3rd portion 74th Adhyaya, Vayu Purana Uttarardham 37th Adhyaya (99th Adhyaya), Sreemad Bhagavatham 9th Skantha 22nd Adhyaya,12th
Skantha 1st Adhyaya. Thus, the date of Gauthama Buddha, who was contemporary to Bimbisara and Ajatasatru of Sisunaga Dynasty of Magadha Empire can be fixed. In the same way, dates of Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya and Asoka of Magadha Empire can be derived easily. Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, an ancient Sanskrit text, describes the Chronology of Magadha Empire from the year of Mahabharata War up to Gupta Period. It details the Saptarishi or Laukabda Era. Saptarishi is Great
Bear constellation, where the seven major stars are named after seven famous rishis and Arundhatee is the star that always stays with Vasishtha star. As per this text, Saptarishi will be stationed for 100 years, in every Nakshatra situated in the ecliptic belt in which the Earth revolves round the Sun. Thus, one complete revolution occurs in 2700 years. Saptarishi stayed in Magha Nakshatra, 75 years before the beginning of Kali yuga and 25 years after that. Then it went to Ashlesha Nakshatra, when Yudhishthira went to heaven i.e. after 25 years of Vanavasa, at which Laukikabda era began. The text also mentions that Kali yuga began when Sree Krishna left the world. The text mentions that at the time of Mahapadma Nanda, Saptarishi will be at Sravana Nakshatra (1500 years in retrograde). Saptarishi will be at 24th Nakshatra when Andhra Satavahana will be ruling and near the end of their rule, it will be at 27th (Ashlesha) Nakshatra and Gupta
rule will begin at this period of time. When Saptarishi reaches Punarvasu, Gupta Empire will start down falling and when it reaches Purva Bhadrapada Nakshatra, Magadha will be in the hands of Pala Kings of Bengal.
Hence from the details given in Purana and Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, we can derive the correct chronology of our Nation, from the time of Mahabharata war and Kali yuga beginning. It also helps to fix the date of Mahabharata war. Besides, calculating from the year of Kali yuga beginning, we can derive the period of
Sree Krishna, Veda Vyasa and the year of Bhagavat Geetha.
Hence, the date of Mahabharata war and the Kali yuga Epoch can be a twin sheet anchor in the history and chronology of our Nation.
Thus, it is very essential to know the year of Kali yuga beginning i.e. Kali yuga Epoch. The best concrete and conclusive proof is epigraphic inscriptional evidence. Now, in my book, “KALI YUGA Inscriptional Evidence”, 436 epigraphic inscriptions are detailed with authentic proofs. It also includes a foreign evidence
from Southern part of Thailand. (Book is available at amzon.in & flipkart or from the Book store, Blue Rose Publishers). These inscriptions can be cross checked and cross verifiable, as they mention along with Kaliyuga year, either one or two other eras also. The other eras mentioned in these inscriptions are Salivahana Saka, Vikrama Samvath, Laukikabda Era, Kollam Era, Kochi Date and Common Era. More than half of the inscriptions give the regnal years of rulers also. Thus, these inscriptional evidences are cross verifiable. They were issued by the rulers of almost all the dynasties of this Nation, in almost all the languages of this Nation and are found in almost all the parts of our Nation. Their dates show that the practice of mentioning the period in Kali yuga years was followed in our Nation continuously and uninterruptedly for at least more than 1300 years. The common people also used Kali Epoch to describe their period and events. Thus, the practice of mentioning events and their period in Kali yuga years was prevalent throughout the Nation uniformly. Besides 11 inscriptions mention the date of inscription in Kali
yuga days. This shows that our ancestors knew time calculation and were mathematical experts. Further it proves that they followed Luni Sola cycles.
These 436 epigraphic inscriptions prove concretely, conclusively and assertively that Kali yuga began in 3101 B.C.E.
Based on this, if we derive the historical chronology of our Nation, the results will be as follows.
1. Date of Sree Krishna – before 3101 B.C.E. (c3200 to 3101 B.C.E)
2. Date of Veda Vyasa – before 3101 B.C.E. (c3200 to c 3100 B.C.E.)
3. Date of Mahabharata war – a few years before 3137 B.C.E.
4. Date of Bhagavat Geeta – a few years before 3137 B.C.E.
5. Date of Yudhishitira – c3200 to 3076 B.C.E.
6. Date of Parikshit – c3137 B.C.E.
7. Regnal Period of Bimbisara –1852 to 1814 B.C.E.
8. Regnal Period of Ajatasatru –1814 to 1787 B.C.E.
9. Date of Gauthama Buddha – 1888 to 1808 B.C.E.
10. Regnal Period of Mahapadma Nanda – 1634 to 1546 B.C.E.
11. Date of Chanakya –c 1534 B.C.E.
12. Regnal Period of Chandra Gupta Maurya –1534 to 1500 B.C.E
13. Regnal Period of Asoka of Maurya –1472 to 1436 B.C.E.
14. Regnal Period of Pushyamitra Sunga –1218 to 1158 B.C.E.
15. Regnal Period of Agnimitra Sunga –1158 to 1108 B.C.E.
16. Regnal Period of Andhra Satavahana Dynasty –833 to 327 B.C.E.
17. Regnal Period of Hala Satavahana (Poorna Varman) – 494 to 489 B.C.E.
18. Date of AdiSankara –508 to 476 B.C.E.
19. Era of Cyrus II –550 B.C.E.
20. Regnal Period of Chandra Gupta of Gupta Dynasty –327 B.C.E. to 320 B.C.E.
21. Regnal Period of Samudra Gupta –320 to 269 B.C.E.
22. Regnal Period of Chandra Gupta II of Gupta Dynasty –269 to 233 B.C.E.
23. Regnal Period of Vikramaditya of Pramara Dynasty –82 B.C.E. to 19 C.E.
24. Regnal Period of Salivahana of Pramara Dynasty –78 to 138 C.E.
5 of 5
25. Date of Kalidasa –1st Century B.C.E.
26. Date of Varahamihira –1st Century B.C.E.
Thus, if we adopt and derive the dates based on the epigraphic inscriptional evidence of Kali yuga, which conclusively prove that the Epoch of Kali yuga as 3101 B.C.E., the Historical Chronology of our Nation becomes more accurate and more correct. I submit the above article for the positive and knowledgeable considerations of the scholars, so that the truth will sustain and reach every corner of this world.
Year of birth of Kothai Andal
Sreemat Andal is one of the 12 Azhvars who devoted their whole life in the devotion on Sreemath Narayana. These 12 Azhvars also sang devotional songs on Sreemat Narayana which are collectively known as Nalayira Divya Prabhantham. Kothai Andal who is worshiped as Mother Goddess by Hindus especially Vaishnavits, is famous for Her song Tiruppavai which was sung by Her in the holy month of Margasirsa. Sreemat Andal, who is worshiped as the incarnation of Mother Earth, was born in the holy city Srivilliputhur which is in southern part of Tamilnadu state of Bharat, close to the western mountain range. Sree Vishnu chittar who is famously known as Periyazhvar (one of the 12 Azhvars) is Her father. (zha is a special la in our Tamil language)
The time at which these 12 Azhvars lived is not given adequate importance, as the people gave more attention to their teachings and show more interest on the devotional songs sung by them and the devotees are always fond of dipping in the ocean of these songs and immersing in the spiritual enjoyment of the immense feelings in the devotion and realising their identity and oneness with the Almighty. However, there are references either internally in their devotional songs or in the sloka of later Vaishnavits about the time of these Azhvars.
In this article, let us analyse the year of birth of Kothai Andal. If we search internet or any text about the period of Sreemat Andal or of any other Alvar, it is said that they belong to 7th or 8th century C.E. Actually speaking, there is no research or study have been conducted on the dates of Alvars and even Nayanmars, the great Saiva Bhakta Jnanies. It is commonly said that 7th and 8th century can be considered as the period of Bhakti movement in Tamilnadu and hence these Alvars and Nayanmars were belong to this period. Then if we ask the question why 7th and 8th century C.E. is considered as the period of Bhakti movement, the answer told was that this is because the Alvars and Nayanmars lived in this period and they spread Vaishnava and Saiva Bhakti among the people during this period. Thus it is clearly a circular argument, where one proves the other and the proof of the first theory is the second theory which is totally based on the first theory. Except this, there is no other proof. Hence it is essential to derive the date of Sreemat Andal independently, not based on any type of circular argument.
Sreemat Andal’s birth year is given in the text of Pinbazhakiya Perumal Jeeyar who was a disciple of Nampillai who in turn is a strong Vaishnavit and lived during the time of Sreemat Ramanujar. Since this text was composed during the period of Sree Ramanujar, it is 1000 years ancient. This text was published by Se.Krishnamacaryar and printed at Noble Printing Press, Tiruvallikeni, Chennai in 1927. In his “Araayirappadi Guru Parampara Prabhavam” Pinbazhakiya Perumal Jeeyar wrote as,
“siddhaanaam Saradaam Kalaavapagame Varshe Nalaakhye Ravaau
yate karkkatakam vidhaavupacite shashti ahni Sreemati
nakshatra aryamadaivate Kshitabhuvo vaare caturthyaam tithau
Godaa pradurabhooda cintyamahimaa Sreevishnucittaatmajaa”
(S is pronounced as in Sankara, s is pronounced as sarasvati, sh is pronounced as shanmukha, aa is long vowel, a is short vowel.
Thus, it means that Sreemat Andal, the daughter of Sree Vishnucitta, was born in 97 years of Kaliyuga (‘siddha” in Katapayati sankhya and by Angaanaam vaamato gati denotes the number 97, s is 7 and dha is 9 and we have to reverse it and thus it is 97), in Nala year, in Ashadha month (Sun in Karkkataka), Poorva Phalguni (Poora) Nakshatra, 6th day, Sukla Paksha 4th thithi, Tuesday.
In the same way the year of birth of Periyazhvar, father of Sreemat Andal is mentioned in the same text as,
“tatvaabdaapagame Kalau yugavare samvatsare krodhane
canDaamSau mithunangata ahni navame pakshe valarksha api ca
svaatyaam Bhaaskaravaasare SubhatithavekaadaSeenaamani
Sreemaanaavirabhooda cintyamahimaa Sreevishnucitta Anagha:”
(ta, tha, da and dha are of “tha” series and Ta, THa, Da and Dha are of “Ta” series)
Thus, it means Sree Vishnucitta (Periyazhvar) was born in 46th year of Kaliyuga (‘tatva” in katapayati sankhya and anganaam vaamatogati denotes 46 as ta is 6 and va is 4 and we have to reverse it and thus it is 46), in Krodhana year, in Jyeshtha month (Sun in Mithuna), 9th day, Sukla paksha Ekadasi thithi, Sunday, Svati Nakshatra.
Thus Periyazhvar (Vishnucittar) was born in 46th year of Kaliyuga in Krodhana year i.e. 3101 – 46 = 3055 B.C.E. and Sreemat Andal was born in 97th year of Kaliyuga in Nala year i.e. 3101 – 97 = 3004 B.C.E. The difference between the birth year of Periyazhvar and Sreemat Andal is 51 years and Periyazvar actually found out the child in a flower garden and took the child to his home and brought Her up and that child is Sreemat Andal. That is why the age difference is 51 years. The difference between the 60 years cyclic year Krodhana to Nala is also 51 years i.e. from Krodhana to Nala and thus it also fits within correctly.
Now we are going to analyse the internal evidence for the birth time of Sreemat Andal.
Sreemat Andal’s highly devotional poem is Tiruppavai (Tamil). It has 30 songs. Here one song is for each day and thus 30 songs are for 30 days of Margasirsa month and first song was sung on the first day and second song on the second day and like that up to 30 days of the month. These songs were sung to wake up the young girls in the early morning before Sun rise and to motivate them in Sree Krishna Bhakti. In Tiruppavai in 1st song, which was sung on the first day of Margasirsa month, Sreemat Andal mentioned two things.
The first line is,
“Maargazhi thingal Mati niraintha nannaalaal”
This means that on the first day of Margasirsa month (Maargazhi Thingal), the Moon was either Full Moon or near Full Moon (Mathi is Moon in Tamil and Niraintha means with fully filled in). In Candramana calendar, based on Moon’s revolution around Earth, there are two types, one is Paurnamanta where the Candramana month begins on the next day of Full Moon (Pratama thithi after Paurnamai Krishna Paksha) and ends on the day of Full Moon and Amanta type where the Candramana month begins on the next day of New Moon (Pratama thithi after Amavasya Sukla Paksha) and ends on the day of New Moon. Since here the Month began with Full or near Full Moon, it is Paurnamanta type of Candramana month of Margasirsa.
In Tiruppavai, at the 4th line of 13th song (which was sung on the 13th day early morning before Sun rise) it was mentioned as,
“Velli ezhunthu Viyazham urangitru”
which means that on the 13th day early morning before Sunrise, Venus rose (in the East, Velli is Venus and ezhunthu means rose) and Jupiter set (in the west, Viyazham is Jupiter and urangitru means set). Thus on the 13th day early morning i.e on the near completion of 12th day of Margasirsa month, Venus rose in the east before Sun and Jupiter set in the west. Since the rise of Venus and setting of Jupiter especially the rise of Venus must be before Sun rise, because if the Venus rises after Sun rise, one cannot see the rise of Venus, as it will be obscured by the bright Sun light. Venus is always close to Sun because it revolves around the Sun within the elliptical orbit of the Earth. The maximum elongation of Venus i.e. the difference between the longitude of Sun and Venus is 45 to 47 degrees only. The songs were sung in the early morning before Sun rise. Hence it means that Venus rose in the east just before Sun rise in the east on this day. Then Jupiter is revolving the Sun external to the elliptical orbit of Earth. Hence it always rises in the east and sets in the west, as the Earth rotates on its axis from west to east. Thus on the 13th day early morning Jupiter set in the west at Sunrise. This means that Jupiter was opposite to Sun and Venus in the zodiac circle i.e. around 180 degrees away from Sun and Venus.
Since this Margasirsa month began on the first day of pratama thithi of Krishna Paksha, then on the end of 12th day, the difference between the longitude of Sun and Moon will be 24 to 42 degrees, depending on the time of occurrence of Paurnamai and Amavasya, as Amavasya occurs after 14th to 16th day from Paurnami. Hence the longitude of Moon is 24 to 42 degrees less than that of Sun, on the completion of 12th day in Krishna Paksha. Since this is Margasirsa month in Candramana Paurnamanta calendar, Sun and Venus will be at Dhanus or in Vrischika zodiac sign. There is a difference between Candramana and Sauramana Calendar. Sauramana Calendar is based on the Earth’s revolution around the Sun. In Sauramana Calendar only, at the beginning of Margasirsa month, Sun will be at 240 degrees. In Candramana Calendar it will be less than 240 degrees, up to a maximum of 27 degrees less and when the difference touches 30 degrees, it will be calculated as excess (Adhika) month, as in 30 days, the Earth will revolve 30 degrees around the Sun making it as a month. (Earth’s revolution around the Sun is counted as Sun’s revolution and hence Sun’s revolution for 30 degrees in 30 days is counted as a month). Thus the longitude of Sun can be less than 240 degrees and hence Sun can be in Vrischika zodiac sign. Then Moon will be in Vrischika or Tula zodiac sign, Venus in Vrischika and Jupiter is in Mithuna or Vrishibha zodiac sign, in the year of Tiruppavai, i.e. when Sreemat Andal had grown up as a young girl.
Now since Jupiter revolves around the Sun in 11.8609631541 years for one full revolution. Thus once in (almost) 12 years only Jupiter will be at Vrishibha or Mithuna zodiac sign. Based on this, we can calculate in which year Jupiter was at Mithuna or just before Mithuna. After that we can fix Sun and then Moon. Finally the longitude of Venus is calculated and it must be just 5 to 10 degrees less than the longitude of Sun, as Venus rose just before Sun rise. The year which satisfies all these 4 conditions, will be the year of Tiruppavai.
The Graha Laghava is an astronomical text wrote by Sri Ganesa Daivajna in 1442nd year of Salivahana Saka i.e. 1520 C.E. (500 years before present). He lived in the area of Maharashtra. In that text he wrote the mean (Madhya) positions of Graha and Sighrakendra of Venus and Mercury, at Sun rise on the Sukla Paksha Pratama thithi of Chaitra month of 1442nd Salivahana Saka year at Ujjaini. From that using the Trigonometric calculations as found in the ancient astronomical texts of our Nation, any one can calculate the mean positions of Graha for any date either past or future or for the present year. From the mean position of Graha, by applying Desantara, Manda, Sighra and Bhujantara corrections, we can get the exact (sphuta) positions of the Graha for any day at any place. First we have to calculate the Ahargana (the number of days elapsed since the epoch i.e. the reference year) and then calculate the Mandoccha and Sighroccha of the Graha for the required year. Based on this we can calculate the exact Graha position. The details of these calculations are fully explained in my book “Astronomical Evidence of the Date of Mahabharata War” which can be read as a Kindle edition in amazon.in, amazon.uk.in and amazon.com.
Now the results are,
On the 108th year of Kaliyuga (2993 B.C.E.) when Sreemat Andal was 11 years old girl, on completion of 12th day, on the early morning of the 13th day of Candramana Paurnamanta Margasirsa month, the exact positions of 4 Graha were,
1. Sun 233 Degrees 36 Minutes, 2. Moon 191 Degrees 43 Minutes, 3. Venus 227 Degrees 35 Minutes and 4. Jupiter 61 Degrees 17 Minutes.
Venus was 6 degrees and 1 minute less than Sun and hence satisfied. Jupiter was 174 degrees and 19 minutes less than Sun and 166 degrees and 18 minutes less than Venus and hence it is at the opposite of the zodiac sign to Sun and Venus. Hence it is satisfied. Moon was 41 degrees 53 minutes less than Sun and hence satisfied. Sun was in the end part of Vriscika (210 to 240 degrees) and hence it is acceptable for Candramana Paurnamanta Calender. Venus was in Vriscika, Moon was in Tula and Jupiter was in Mithuna zodiac sign. Thus all are acceptable.
All these satisfy the fore mentioned 4 conditions. Hence the year at which Sreemat Andal sung Tiruppavai is 108 Kali (2993 B.C.E.)and it confirms the birth year of Sreemat Andal at 97 Kali (3004 B.C.E.) as given in the sloka of the text Araayirappadi Guru Parampara Prabhavam written 1000 years ago by Pinbazhakiya Perumal Jeeyar, who was a disciple of Nampillai who in turn lived during the time of Sreemat Ramanujacaryar.
There are interesting narrations one can find through internet about the link of life history and the warefare techniques of Chatrapathi Sivaji and the tiny Vietnam’s victory in its freedom war against the mighty United States of America (U.S.A.). Since these narrations described the incidences that occurred in 1970s, it is difficult to prove the veracity of these narrations, but one can understand and accept the ring of truth in these narrations.
The foreign Minister of Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam, Madam Nguyen Thi Binh came to our Nation in May 1976. During this visit, she garlanded the statue of Chatrapathi Sivaji. Then she went to Raigad, Maharashtra state. At Raigad fort she worshipped the Samadhi of Chatrapathi Sivaji and applied the bit of soil of Samadhi over her forehead with much respect. Then she collected a little bit of soil of Samadhi and put it in her bag. When asked about the reasons for her actions, she mentioned that the life history and war techniques of Chatrapathi Sivaji was the sole inspirational and guiding force that lead to the victory of Vietnam against U.S.A. Thus, the sole purpose of her Visit was to show the gratitude and respect of Vietnam towards Chatrapathi Sivaji. She further added that she was going to sprinkle the soil collected at Samadhi over the soil of Vietnam, so that Chatrapathi Sivaji like great personalities would be born in Vietnam also. Madam Binh later become Education Minister of Socialist Republic of Vietnam in June 1976 and Vice President in 2002.
The President of Vietnam, when he started Vietnam’s freedom war against U.S.A., happened to read the life history of Chatrapathi Sivaji. It gave him the much needed confidence, inspiration, War planning and tactics. He studied and admired how Chatrapathi Sivaji won the large armies of his enemies with his small and tiny army, by following excellent war techniques and tactics. Chatrapathi Sivaji used guerrilla warfare and many other war techniques and achieved great victories in all the 270 wars he fought. This give the President to chart out his plans and fighting method, which ultimately lead to Vietnam’s victory over U.S.A. The President instructed to inscribe the following line on his grave, “Here rests a mavala of Chatrapathi Sivaji”. Mavala means an ordinary soldier. The President even told that if Chatrapathi Sivaji had been born in Vietnam, Vietnam would have conquered the whole world.
Refer Sashakta Bharat
The various narrations and accounts pertaining to King Vikramaditya of Ujjain, found in the ancient texts of our Nation and the historical notes and writings of the foreign scholars and historians were analysed properly and thoroughly. This clearly and assertively proves that King Vikramaditya who came in the lineage of Agnikula of Pramara dynasty of Ujjain, is definitely a historical person and he ruled most of the parts of Bharat for 100 years, between 81 B.C.E. to 19 C.E. He started his Era in 57 B.C.E., when he conquered Nepal.