The Importance of Epoch of Kaliyuga
In the ancient texts of our Nation, time is measured both in Micro and Macroscopic units. Puranic Texts like Vishnu Puranam (1:3:8 to 10) and Sreemad Bhagavatam (3:11:33) describe Macro Time. Varivasya Rahasyam (vv.12cd, 13 & 16 cd) describes Micro Time. In the same way, Astronomical texts like SuryaSiddhanta 1:11 to 27, Maha Aryabhatta Siddhanta 1:15 to 20, Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta 1:4 to 14, Vatesvara Siddhanta 1:7 to 10 and Siddhanta Siromani 1: 5 to 27 mention the Time Division in Micro as well as Macroscopic units. These Puranic and Astronomical texts describe that the life time of Brahma is 432,00,00,000 x 2 x 360 x 100 years, i.e. 3,11,04,000,00,00,000 human years. The smallest unit of time mentioned in these ancient texts is Truti i.e. 1/1,12,500 second.
Life time of Brahma has 2 x 360 x 100 Kalpa. One Kalpa has 432 Crore human years and of 14 Manvantra of 30,84,48,000 human years, including Sandhi period. One Manvantra has 71 Mahayuga and their Sandhi period. Sandhi Period is equal to 17,28,000 human years (Years of Kruta or Satya yuga). One Mahayuga is
of 43,20,000 human years, i.e.17,28,000 years of Kruta + 12,96,000 years of Treta + 8,64,000 years of Dvapara + 4,32,000 human years of Kali yuga. Here, 360 human years are equal to one Divya year which is again equal to 12 Pitru years. At present we are living in the first day of 51st year of Brahma and in Svetavaraha Kalpa, 7th Manvantara (Vaivasvata), 28th Mahayuga and in Kaliyuga Prathama Bhaga (as per Sankalpa). Now as per this calculation, we are living in the first part of Kali yuga of 28th Mahayuga. The beginning of this Kaliyuga of 28th Mahayuga of 7th Manvantara of Svetavaraha Kalpa is the epoch of the present Kali yuga.
In the ancient texts of our Nation, the chronology is often counted from the beginning of Kali yuga i.e. Epoch of the present Kali yuga. Bhavishya Purana, in its Sloka 3:1:7:7 & 8, mentions that King Pramara of Agni Vamsa of Sama Veda started his dynasty at Ujjain in 2710th year of Kali yuga. In the same text, the Sloka 3:1:7:14 & 15 mention that King Vikramaditya of this dynasty who started Vikrama Samvat, born in 3000th year of Kali yuga. Jyotirvidabharanam of Kalidasa, in Sloka 22:21, mentions that Kalidasa started writing this text in Vaikasi Month of 3068th year of Kali yuga and completed in Karthika Month. Jyotirvidabharanam of Kalidasa in its Sloka 10:22, mentions that King Vikramaditya, Astronomer Varahamihira were contemporary to Kalidasa. Thus, these three great personalities of ancient period, lived around 3050 years after the beginning of Kali yuga. Further this text mentions, in its Sloka 10:110 to 114, that 3044 years after King Yudhishthira, King Vikramaditya started his Vikrama Samvat and 135 years after this Vikrama Samvat, King Salivahana would start his Salivahana Saka. He even mentioned future Kings
like Vijayabhinandana, Nagarjuna and Bali. Thus, in the year 3044 of Kali yuga, Vikrama Samvat began and in 3179th year of Kaliyuga, Salivahana Saka began, because Jayabhyudaya Yudhishthira Saka had begun at Kali yuga beginning. Vruddha Garga mentioned that Saptarishi (Great Bear) were at Magha Nakshatra at
Kali Dvapara Yuga Junction. Varahamihira mentioned in his Brihat Samhita, at its 3rd sloka 13th Adhyaya, that Saptarishi were at Magha Nakshatra when Yudhishthitira was King. This shows that Kali Dvapra yuga junction and the period of Yudhishthira are one and the same in terms of time.
Vatesvara Siddhnata 10th sloka of 1st section of 1st chapter, Sisyadhi Vriddhida Tantra of Lallacarya 12th sloka of 1st Adhyaya, Mahabhaskariyam of Bhaskara 4th sloka of 1st Adhyaya, Laghubhaskariyam of Bhaskara
4th sloka of 1st Adhyaya mention that in 3179th year of Kali yuga, Salivahana Saka began. Siddhanta Siromani of Bhaskaracarya in Grahaganitadhyaya, Madhyamadhikara, Kalamanadhyaya, 28th sloka mentions that Sakanrupa Era came to an end in 3179 years of Kali yuga, at which Salivahana Saka began. Varahamihira in his Brihat Samhita mentioned in the 3rd sloka of 13th Adhyaya that 2526 years after Yudhishthira of Pancha Pandava, the era of the Saka King (Sakanrupa Era of Cyrus II) began. King Yudhishthira went to heaven 25 years after the beginning of Kali yuga. Thus, in 2551st (2526 + 25) year of Kali yuga, Sakanrupa
Era of Cyrus II began. Thus, by fixing the year of Kali yuga beginning, we can correctly derive the Epoch of Cyrus II, the period of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, Varahamihira, Kalidasa and Salivahana.
In the same way, the date of AdiSankara can also be correctly derived. The year of Birth of AdiSankara is given in the ancient Sanskrit text Praceena Sankara Vijaya (Sushama), in Bhooda Sankya. It mentions that
in Kaliyuga (Tishya), Anala, Sevati, Bana, Netra = 3, 9, 5, 2 = 2593 (Anganaam Vaamato Gati), Vaikasa month, Punarvasu Nakshatram, is the year of birth of AdiSankara. The Sanskrit verse is,
“ Tishye prayaatyanala sevati baana netre
yo nandane dinamanaamavutakatvabaaji
Raade aditerutuni nigatam astra lagne
Abyahootavaan Sivagurus sa ca Sankareti”
The year of Siddhi of AdiSankara is given in Punya Sloka Manjari, 4th sloka, in Katapayaati Sankhya as, in Kali (Kaler), Saracaraabde = Sa 5, ra 2, ca 6, ra 2 = 2625 (Angaanaam Vaamato Gati), Rakthaakshi year, Vaikasi month, Suklapaksha Ekadasi at the age of 32 (phala, pha =2, la = 3). The Sanskrit verse is,
“Phale svasmin svaayushyapi Saracarabte api ca Kaler
vililye Raktaakshin yadhiivRusha sitaikaadasi pare”
(Refer Deivathin Kural, 5th Volume, Sankara Kala Nirnayam, Pages 760 to 780). Thus the date of AdiSankara can be fixed correctly.
Besides, the date of Mahabharata War can also be fixed correctly. Mahabharata text of Veda Vyasa mentions that the war was fought at the end of Dvapara yuga and Kali yuga would begin very soon. There was just 36 + years of difference from the year of Mahabharata war to the beginning of Kali yuga. (Refer Mahabharata Text of Veda Vyasa, Adiparva 2:13, Vanaparva 149:39, Santi Parva 332/339/340 Adhyaya,
Sree Krishna Avatara at Dvapara Kali junction, Streeparva 25:44, Mausala Parva 1:1, 3 & 7, 2:18 to 21 & 24, 3:7 & My book “Astronomical Evidence of the Date of Mahabharata War” based on Astronomy and Trigonometric Mathematical Calculations described in ancient Astronomical Texts of our Nation and the book is available as Kindle Edition in amazon.in). Thus, the year of Mahabharata war can be fixed.
Purana, especially Vishnu, Matsya, Brahmanda, Vayu and Sreemad Bhagavatam describe the chronology of Pandava dynasty, Ikshvaku Dynasty and Magadha Empire and their contemporary Kings ruling various parts of our Nation from the year of Mahabharata war up to Gupta period. These Purana also mention that
Kali yuga began immediately after Sree Krishna left the world. Refer Vishnu Purana 4th part 21 to 24th Adhyaya, Matsya Purana 271 to 273rd Adhyaya, Brahmanda Purana 2nd part 3rd portion 74th Adhyaya, Vayu Purana Uttarardham 37th Adhyaya (99th Adhyaya), Sreemad Bhagavatham 9th Skantha 22nd Adhyaya,12th
Skantha 1st Adhyaya. Thus, the date of Gauthama Buddha, who was contemporary to Bimbisara and Ajatasatru of Sisunaga Dynasty of Magadha Empire can be fixed. In the same way, dates of Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya and Asoka of Magadha Empire can be derived easily. Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, an ancient Sanskrit text, describes the Chronology of Magadha Empire from the year of Mahabharata War up to Gupta Period. It details the Saptarishi or Laukabda Era. Saptarishi is Great
Bear constellation, where the seven major stars are named after seven famous rishis and Arundhatee is the star that always stays with Vasishtha star. As per this text, Saptarishi will be stationed for 100 years, in every Nakshatra situated in the ecliptic belt in which the Earth revolves round the Sun. Thus, one complete revolution occurs in 2700 years. Saptarishi stayed in Magha Nakshatra, 75 years before the beginning of Kali yuga and 25 years after that. Then it went to Ashlesha Nakshatra, when Yudhishthira went to heaven i.e. after 25 years of Vanavasa, at which Laukikabda era began. The text also mentions that Kali yuga began when Sree Krishna left the world. The text mentions that at the time of Mahapadma Nanda, Saptarishi will be at Sravana Nakshatra (1500 years in retrograde). Saptarishi will be at 24th Nakshatra when Andhra Satavahana will be ruling and near the end of their rule, it will be at 27th (Ashlesha) Nakshatra and Gupta
rule will begin at this period of time. When Saptarishi reaches Punarvasu, Gupta Empire will start down falling and when it reaches Purva Bhadrapada Nakshatra, Magadha will be in the hands of Pala Kings of Bengal.
Hence from the details given in Purana and Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, we can derive the correct chronology of our Nation, from the time of Mahabharata war and Kali yuga beginning. It also helps to fix the date of Mahabharata war. Besides, calculating from the year of Kali yuga beginning, we can derive the period of
Sree Krishna, Veda Vyasa and the year of Bhagavat Geetha.
Hence, the date of Mahabharata war and the Kali yuga Epoch can be a twin sheet anchor in the history and chronology of our Nation.
Thus, it is very essential to know the year of Kali yuga beginning i.e. Kali yuga Epoch. The best concrete and conclusive proof is epigraphic inscriptional evidence. Now, in my book, “KALI YUGA Inscriptional Evidence”, 436 epigraphic inscriptions are detailed with authentic proofs. It also includes a foreign evidence
from Southern part of Thailand. (Book is available at amzon.in & flipkart or from the Book store, Blue Rose Publishers). These inscriptions can be cross checked and cross verifiable, as they mention along with Kaliyuga year, either one or two other eras also. The other eras mentioned in these inscriptions are Salivahana Saka, Vikrama Samvath, Laukikabda Era, Kollam Era, Kochi Date and Common Era. More than half of the inscriptions give the regnal years of rulers also. Thus, these inscriptional evidences are cross verifiable. They were issued by the rulers of almost all the dynasties of this Nation, in almost all the languages of this Nation and are found in almost all the parts of our Nation. Their dates show that the practice of mentioning the period in Kali yuga years was followed in our Nation continuously and uninterruptedly for at least more than 1300 years. The common people also used Kali Epoch to describe their period and events. Thus, the practice of mentioning events and their period in Kali yuga years was prevalent throughout the Nation uniformly. Besides 11 inscriptions mention the date of inscription in Kali
yuga days. This shows that our ancestors knew time calculation and were mathematical experts. Further it proves that they followed Luni Sola cycles.
These 436 epigraphic inscriptions prove concretely, conclusively and assertively that Kali yuga began in 3101 B.C.E.
Based on this, if we derive the historical chronology of our Nation, the results will be as follows.
1. Date of Sree Krishna – before 3101 B.C.E. (c3200 to 3101 B.C.E)
2. Date of Veda Vyasa – before 3101 B.C.E. (c3200 to c 3100 B.C.E.)
3. Date of Mahabharata war – a few years before 3137 B.C.E.
4. Date of Bhagavat Geeta – a few years before 3137 B.C.E.
5. Date of Yudhishitira – c3200 to 3076 B.C.E.
6. Date of Parikshit – c3137 B.C.E.
7. Regnal Period of Bimbisara –1852 to 1814 B.C.E.
8. Regnal Period of Ajatasatru –1814 to 1787 B.C.E.
9. Date of Gauthama Buddha – 1888 to 1808 B.C.E.
10. Regnal Period of Mahapadma Nanda – 1634 to 1546 B.C.E.
11. Date of Chanakya –c 1534 B.C.E.
12. Regnal Period of Chandra Gupta Maurya –1534 to 1500 B.C.E
13. Regnal Period of Asoka of Maurya –1472 to 1436 B.C.E.
14. Regnal Period of Pushyamitra Sunga –1218 to 1158 B.C.E.
15. Regnal Period of Agnimitra Sunga –1158 to 1108 B.C.E.
16. Regnal Period of Andhra Satavahana Dynasty –833 to 327 B.C.E.
17. Regnal Period of Hala Satavahana (Poorna Varman) – 494 to 489 B.C.E.
18. Date of AdiSankara –508 to 476 B.C.E.
19. Era of Cyrus II –550 B.C.E.
20. Regnal Period of Chandra Gupta of Gupta Dynasty –327 B.C.E. to 320 B.C.E.
21. Regnal Period of Samudra Gupta –320 to 269 B.C.E.
22. Regnal Period of Chandra Gupta II of Gupta Dynasty –269 to 233 B.C.E.
23. Regnal Period of Vikramaditya of Pramara Dynasty –82 B.C.E. to 19 C.E.
24. Regnal Period of Salivahana of Pramara Dynasty –78 to 138 C.E.
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25. Date of Kalidasa –1st Century B.C.E.
26. Date of Varahamihira –1st Century B.C.E.
Thus, if we adopt and derive the dates based on the epigraphic inscriptional evidence of Kali yuga, which conclusively prove that the Epoch of Kali yuga as 3101 B.C.E., the Historical Chronology of our Nation becomes more accurate and more correct. I submit the above article for the positive and knowledgeable considerations of the scholars, so that the truth will sustain and reach every corner of this world.